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# Advances in Theoretical and Mathematical Physics

## Volume 27 (2023)

### Number 2

### JT gravity coupled to fermions

Pages: 483 – 522

DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.4310/ATMP.2023.v27.n2.a2

#### Authors

#### Abstract

We argue that two-dimensional dilaton gravity models can all be derived from an analog of Jacobson’s covariant version of the first law of thermodynamics.We then specialize to the JT gravity model and couple it to massless fermions. This model is exactly soluble in quantum field theory, and we present a new derivation of that result.

The field theory model violates two principles one might want to impose on a quantum theory of gravity describing the near horizon region of an extremal charged black hole in four dimensions: finiteness of the entropy for finite causal diamonds, and the absence of global conservation laws. It preserves an infinite number of conservation laws that one would have expected to be violated, since the fermion state on each side of the $AdS_2$ wormhole is unavoidably thermal. We describe a cutoff version of the model, with extra interactions, which cures these difficulties. Our UV completion of the model depends on the AKK $\href{https://doi.org/10.1016/S0550-3213(02)00541-2}{[3]}$ map of non-relativistic fermions in an inverted oscillator potential to Weyl fermions in Minkowski space. We argue that gauging the $Z_2$ symmetry of the oscillator model, using a density matrix with temperature that depends on the oscillator coordinates, and inserting chaotic interactions at (almost) infinite oscillator coordinate, we obtain a model with properties expected of quantum gravity in the near horizon region of an extremal charged black hole in four dimensions.

P.D. acknowledges support from the U.S. Department of Energy under Grant number DE-SC0015655.

The work of T.B. and B.Z. was partially supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Grant No. DE-SC0010008.

Published 12 October 2023