Methods and Applications of Analysis

Volume 17 (2010)

Number 1

Dynamical Laws of the Coupled Gross-Pitaevskii Equations for Spin-1 Bose-Einstein Condensates

Pages: 49 – 80



Weizhu Bao

Yanzhi Zhang


In this paper, we derive analytically the dynamical laws of the coupled Gross- Pitaevskii equations (CGPEs) without/with an angular momentum rotation term and an external magnetic field for modelling nonrotating/rotating spin-1 Bose-Eintein condensates. We prove the conservation of the angular momentum expectation when the external trapping potential is radially symmetric in two dimensions and cylindrically symmetric in three dimensions; obtain a system of first order ordinary differential equations (ODEs) governing the dynamics of the density of each component and solve the ODEs analytically in a few cases; derive a second order ODE for the dynamics of the condensate width and show that it is a periodic function without/with a perturbation; construct the analytical solution of the CGPEs when the initial data is chosen as a stationary state with its center- of-mass shifted away from the external trap center. Finally, these dynamical laws are confirmed by the direct numerical simulation results of the CGPEs.


Rotating spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate; coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations; angular momentum rotation; condensate width; angular momentum expectation

2010 Mathematics Subject Classification

35Q55, 65N12, 65N35, 65T99, 65Z05, 81-08

Full Text (PDF format)