Asian Journal of Mathematics

Volume 23 (2019)

Number 2

On equivalence of matrices

Pages: 257 – 348



Daizhan Cheng (Key Laboratory of Systems and Control, AMSS, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China)


A new matrix product, called the semi-tensor product (STP), is briefly reviewed. The STP extends the classical matrix product to two arbitrary matrices. Under STP the set of matrices becomes a monoid (semi-group with identity). Some related structures and properties are investigated. Then the generalized matrix addition is also introduced, which extends the classical matrix addition to a class of two matrices with different dimensions.

Motivated by STP of matrices, two kinds of equivalences of matrices (including vectors) are introduced, which are called matrix equivalence (M-equivalence) and vector equivalence (V-equivalence) respectively. The lattice structure has been established for each equivalence. Under each equivalence, the corresponding quotient space becomes a vector space. Under M-equivalence, many algebraic, geometric, and analytic structures have been posed to the quotient space, which include (i) lattice structure; (ii) inner product and norm (distance); (iii) topology; (iv) a fiber bundle structure, called the discrete bundle; (v) bundled differential manifold; (vi) bundled Lie group and Lie algebra. Under V-equivalence, vectors of different dimensions form a vector space $\mathcal{V}$, and a matrix $A$ of arbitrary dimension is considered as an operator (linear mapping) on $\mathcal{V}$. When $A$ is a bounded operator (not necessarily square but includes square matrices as a special case), the generalized characteristic function, eigenvalue and eigenvector etc. are defined.

In one word, this new matrix theory overcomes the dimensional barrier in certain sense. It provides much more freedom for using matrix approach to practical problems.


Semi-tensor product/addition(STP/STA), vector product/addition(VP/VA), matrix/vector equivalence (M-/V-), lattice, topology, fiber bundle, bundled manifold/Lie algebra/Lie group(BM/BLA/BLG).

2010 Mathematics Subject Classification


This work is supported partly by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grants 61773371 and 61733018.

Received 17 September 2016

Accepted 25 August 2017

Published 28 June 2019