Communications in Analysis and Geometry

Volume 31 (2023)

Number 2

Confined Willmore energy and the area functional

Pages: 407 – 447



Marco Pozzetta (Dipartimento di Matematica, Università di Pisa, Italy)


We consider minimization problems of functionals given by the difference between the Willmore functional of a closed surface and its area, when the latter is multiplied by a positive constant weight $\Lambda$ and when the surfaces are confined in the closure of a bounded open set $\Omega \subset \mathbb{R}^3$. We explicitly solve the minimization problem in the case $\Omega = B_1$. We give a description of the value of the infima and of the convergence of minimizing sequences to integer rectifiable varifolds, depending on the parameter $\Lambda$. We also analyze some properties of these functionals and we provide some examples. Finally we prove the existence of a $C^{1,\alpha} \cap W^{2,2}$ embedded surface that is also $C^\infty$ inside $\Omega$ and such that it achieves the infimum of the problem when the weight $\Lambda$ is sufficiently small.

Received 1 June 2018

Accepted 16 October 2020

Published 6 December 2023